New Glasgow Medical Clinics - Respiratory Diseases are a term that encompasses different pathological conditions that affect the tissues and organs that make the gas exchange possible. The conditions that fit under the designation of a respiratory disease, comprise issues with the upper respiratory tract, bronchi, bronchioles, trachea, pleural cavity, alveoli, pleura in addition to the muscles and nerves that are responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases vary from mild and self-limiting such as the common cold for instance, to life-threatening conditions like pulmonary embolism, bacterial pneumonia and lung cancer.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, whilst those specializing physicians in this particular field are known as a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this field may also be called: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a respirologist and a chest medicine expert.
There are numerous classifications used for the many respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the tissue or organ involved or can be classed by the type and pattern of related signs and symptoms, or according to the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This particular disease, which consists of emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
A common reason for acute respiratory disease is an allergic response because of exposure to different foods and agents. There are some very common allergens found in particular foods like lemon, radish, sea foods like some fatty fish and prawns, peanuts, bananas, pomegranates, ice creams and dairy, arrowroot, lemon, berries and lady's finger. Climate could likewise affect various people since dusty and sandy weather conditions during summer can make the air quality poor for individuals who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways including the bronchioles, alveoli and bronchi become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, therefore making it harder to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Diseases are a category of respiratory disease which is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These RLD's could result in increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an instance.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect whichever part of the respiratory system. They are usually divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The common cold is the most common type of upper respiratory infection. Infections of specific organs found within the upper respiratory tract like for example pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, otitis media and sinusitis are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection usually as a result of bacteria, usually Streptococcus within the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia throughout the globe. Different viruses and fungi could lead to pneumonia also, like for example acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystic pneumonia.
Respiratory tumours are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Pleural cavity diseases include emphysema and mesothelioma. A pleural effusion is a collection of fluid within the pleural cavity. This can be due to situations such as cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, since the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here may even happen from TB, pleura inflammation, pulmonary embolus, mesothelioma and different conditions.
A hole in the pleura that covers the lung and permits air in the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is known as a pneumothorax. In this example, the affected lung collapses similar to a balloon which is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe kind of this where the air could not escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the blood vessels and the heart, causing a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions that affect the pulmonary flow are known as Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Some instances include: Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
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